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童明美国文学史笔记-考研真题详解-达聪学习网

[] [] [] 发布人:达聪学习网   发布日期:2020-07-13 21:23   共 52 人浏览过

以下是达聪学习网小编为大家整理推荐的 童明《美国文学史》(增订版)笔记和课后习题(含考研真题)详解,希望能给大家复习童明美国文学史带来帮助!

作为该教材的学习辅导书,全书完全遵循该教材的章目编排,共分27章,每章由三部分组成:第一部分为复习笔记(中英文对照),总结本章的重点难点;第二部分是课后习题详解,对该书的课后思考题进行了详细解答;第三部分是考研真题与典型题详解,精选名校经典考研真题及相关习题,并提供了详细的参考答案。本书具有以下几个方面的特点:
1.梳理章节脉络,浓缩内容精华。每章的复习笔记以该教材为主并结合其他教材对本章的重难点知识进行了整理,并参考了国内名校名师讲授该教材的课堂笔记,因此,本书的内容几乎浓缩了经典教材的知识精华。
2.中英双语对照,凸显难点要点。本书章节笔记采用了中英文对照的形式,强化对重要难点知识的理解和运用。
3.解析课后习题,提供详尽答案。本书对童明主编的《美国文学史》每章的课后思考题均进行了详细的分析和解答,并对相关重要知识点进行了延伸和归纳。
4.精选考研真题,补充难点习题。本书精选名校近年考研真题及相关习题,并提供答案和详解。所选真题和习题基本体现了各个章节的考点和难点,但又不完全局限于教材内容,是对教材内容极好的补充。

达聪学习网为大家整理了部分笔记内容试看,如需下载完整版,请点击: http://dacai.100xuexi.com/Ebook/171550.html


第1部分早期美国文学:殖民时期至1815年
第1章“新世界”的文学
1.1复习笔记
I.Discoveries of America(发现美洲大陆)Who discovered America?
谁发现了美洲?
1.The credit is often attributed to Christopher Columbus.The moment when the new continent was“discovered”is even determined by some historians at the exact hour of 2:00 A.M.,Friday,October12,1492,when Columbus recorded how he spotted the land.Yet Columbus's reputation as the discoverer of the New World is controversial.
一种说法是哥伦布发现了美洲大陆。但是,这种说法颇具争议。
2.Another noteworthy discoverer of America as a distinctly new egion is the Florentine navigator Amerigo Vespucci.It is because of Vespucci's story that the New World was named"America”.
另一种值得注意的说法是佛罗伦萨航海家阿美利哥?韦斯普奇发现了这片新土地,而“美洲”也正是由他的名字而命名的。
Ⅱ.Native American Oral Literature(美国土著口头文学)There were mainly three major types of the native American oral literature:美国土著口头文学主要有三种不同的形式:
1.Origin stories are those dramatizing tribal interpretations of how the earth originated or of how people established relationships with plants,animals and the cosmos.
起源故事是一些对世界起源的戏剧性的解释,解释地球如何产生,人类如何与植物、动物和宇宙产生联系。
2.Trickster tales are humorous tales featuring trickster characters.Trickster figures are people in the form of animals such as Coyote,Raven,Blue Jay,Mink,or Rabbit.One might also say that they are half animal and half human.
魔法故事是一些关于魔法人物的幽默故事。魔法人物是以动物形象呈现的人,如狼、乌鸦、兔子等。也可以说他们是半人半兽。
3.Historical narratives are diverse in kinds.Some of them are tribal records of historical events.Many other narratives feature legendary figures that move in recognizable historical settings.In such tales,the line between an actual event and tribal belief is blurred.
历史叙事种类多样。有些是部落对历史事件的记录。许多其他叙事中的传奇人物来源于真实的历史背景。
II.European Exploration Writings(欧洲探索写作)
1.Christopher Columbus(1451-1506)(克里斯托弗?哥伦布)Christopher Columbus made four voyages to America between 1492 and 1502.The first voyage was recorded in a journal now lost but it is partially survived in an abstract by Bartolome de Las Casas.
克里斯托弗?哥伦布曾在1492至1502年间四度前往美洲。第一次航行被记录在日记里,现已遗失,但是它的部分内容被卡萨斯写在了一篇摘要中。
2.Captain John Smith(1580-1631)(约翰?史密斯上尉)Since John Smith's writings were the first ones appearing in English in the New World,those who believe Americanness should be defined more in connection with British cultural sources suggest that American literature should begin with Captain Smith.
因为约翰?史密斯的作品是在新大陆出现最早的英语作品,所以一般认为美国文学开始于史密斯上尉。
(1)Life(生平)Smith was born into a moderately prosperous family at Lincolnshire,England.He received a good education.At the age of 15,he was enlisted to fight in the Netherlands.Loving adventures,he joined the expedition which founded the Jamestown colony when he returned from the military.
史密斯出生于英格兰林肯郡的一个小康家庭。他受过良好的教育。15岁时参军,奔赴荷兰作战。他喜欢冒险,离开部队后,加入了建立詹姆斯敦殖民地的探险。
(2)Major Works(主要作品)A Description of New England(1614)
《新英格兰描述》(1614)The True Travels,Adventure,and Observations of Captain John Smith(1630)
《约翰?史密斯上尉的真实游历、冒险和观察》(1630)Advertisements for the Unexperienced Planters of New England,or Anywhere(1631)
《为新英格兰或其他地方无经验的种植园主做广告》(1631)
1.2课后习题答案
1.Give a brief account of Christopher Columbus,Amerigo Vespucci and Martin Waldseemuler so that you can establish one version of the“origin”of America.
Key:Christopher Columbus was often regarded as the founder of"America",but it was very controversial becausethat Columbus who"discovered"America in fact thought that he had reached Asia.He was so convinced that he had reached the land of the great Khan that in his four voyages between 1492 and 1502,he interpreted everything he saw according to his pre-established view of what Asia or Asians should look like.
"America”was named after Amerigo espucci,an Italian merchant,explorer and cartographer,who sailed to Brazil in 1501 under the Portuguese flag and he noted:"we arrived at a new land which we observed to be a continent.”
In 1503 his book Mundus Novus(The New World)was printed and was more widely circulated than anything written by Columbus.Many people think that he was the very person discovered“America”.
Martin Waldseemuller was a German geographer.He found Vespucci's work when he was preparing a new edition of the world's map.It was Waldseemuler who decided that the new land should be named after its finder:Amerigo.On his 1507 world map,this German geographer marked the new territory-what he called the“fourth part”of the world following Europe,Africa,and Asia-as"America”.Vespucci as an explorer is also controversial in that he fabricated the tale that he had made a 1497 voyage during which he found the Southern American continent.It is quite possible that he made up the story to beat Columbus as the first discoverer.
At any rate,it was Vespucci's writings and Waldseemuller's map that made Europeans aware of the“fourth part”of the world.The Europeans then understood that Columbus's description of the New World as a string of Asian islands was quite misleading.At any rate,to the New World called“America”European settlers came in incessant waves.
2.Give some specific examples for the argument that the“origin"of America is multicultural.
Key:There were many explorers from different nations came here and exerted their influence on the native people of the new land.For example,people came from England,brought with their culture,religions,traditions and so on.
3.From the first few pages of this book,do you acquire a new understanding of"discoveries"of America?If so,what is this new understanding?
Key:Yes,I acquire a new understanding of“discoveries”of America.Before I read the passage,I thought it was Columbus that discovered America,and there was nothing worthy of doubting about.But after I read it,I found thatthe fact was not like what I thought.I get new knowledge about the discoveries of America which enriched my mind.At the same time,I realize that histories were past,and everyone has the rights to explain it,perhaps,as he wants to.So,if we want to know histories in the way as it really was,we should read materials as much as possible.
2. Give some specific examples for the argument that the "origin"of America is multicultural.
Key: There were many explorers from different nations came here and exerted their influence on the native people of the new land. For example, people came from England, brought with their culture, religions, traditions and so on.
3. From the first few pages of this book, do you acquire a new understanding of "discoveries"of America? If so, what is this new understanding?
Key: Yes,I acquire a new understanding of "discoveries"of America. Before I read the passage,I thought it was Columbus that discovered America, and there was nothing worthy of doubting about. But after I read it,I found thatthe fact was not like what I thought.I get new knowledge about the discoveries of America which enriched my mind. At the same time,I realize that histories were past, and everyone has the rights to explain it, perhaps, as he wants to. So, if we want to know histories in the way as it really was, we should read materials as much as possible.
4. What is the story of the word"Indian"as it is applied to the indigenous people in America?
Key: When Columbus set sail from Spain on August 3,1492, he was driven by the desire to find a convenient sea passage to the Orient, or, more specifically,a passage to the land of Kublai Khan as Marco Polo had described it in his
13th century travelogues. When he arrived at America, he was so convinced that he had reached the land of the great Khan that in his four voyages between 1492 and 1502, he interpreted everything he saw according to hispre-established view of what Asia or Asians should look like. He thought that he had reached Asia and the land under his feet was India. So, the indigenous people in America were wrongly called "Indian".
5. What are the consequences of the Native Americans'"contact"with European settlers? Why do you think the word
"contact"is used by some historians?
Key: Native Americans were greatly influenced and conquered by European settlers, because Europeans at that time were very strong and aggressive, especially England, Span, France and so on. In fact, from Columbus' friend's informal account of their second voyage to America, we can see how quickly the relationship between the Europeans and the natives deteriorated.
Historians use"contact"mainly because that Native Americans and Europeans could not communicate with eachother in an effective way. At that time, there were so many striking differences between them, economically, religiously, culturally, and politically.
6. What are"origin stories?"Give two examples.
Key: Origin stories are those dramatizing tribal interpretations of how the earth originated or of how people established relationships with plants, animals and the cosmos."Earth-Diver"and "First Beginning"are two typical original stories.
7. Give examples to explain "trickster tales"and "historical narratives"in Native American literature. Compare the discussion of Native American literature in this chapter with that in Chapter 26. Discuss the continuity.
Key: Trickster tales are humorous tales featuring trickster characters. Trickster figures are people in the form of animals such as Coyote, Raven, Blue Jay, Mink, or Rabbit. One might also say that they are half animal and half human.A good Chinese analogy for the "trickster"would be Sun Wukong the Monkey King.
Historical narratives are diverse in kinds. Some of them are tribal records of historical events. Many other narratives feature legendary figures that move in recognizable historical settings. In such tales, the line between an actual event and tribal belief is blurred. Of this vast historical literature, many stories recount European colonization from the perspective of Native Americans. For instance, to the Yuchis,a tribe in the Southeast, white people emerged from the sea foam of the Atlantic. The Yuchi tale "Creation of the Whites"reveals so much of the emotions associated with the first encounters between the Europeans and the natives.
In the early time, most Native American stories were orally passed on, these tales then have a perfomative dimension: they are not only "told,"they are also "sung"as chants and songs, and dramatized in ritual dances. The main types of their stories were origin stories, trickster tales and historical narratives. While in chapter 26, the Native American literature is in wrien form and those writers have their various themes and styles.
8. What is the Eurocentric thinking in the exploration writings by Christopher Columbus and Captain John Smith? How is this thinking specifically is manifested?
Key: The Eurocentric thinking is that some people think that Europe is the center of the world and it holds the most important position in the world.

Many Europeans think that they are the center of the world, and their culture, values, religion, economy, political system and so on are the best of the whole world. They think that people in other parts of the world should submit to them. So, not long after that time, some European countries began to establish colonies around the world. Even now, there are still many people in Europe hold the same idea and try to exert their cultures, values, religious beliefs and so on over people in other parts of the world, especially of some developing countries.

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